Concrete – How Concrete is Made and the History of Concrete

Concrete is the most widely used manmade product in the world. It powers a $35 billion industry, one of the largest on Earth. gutter companies near me is used to make a variety of structures a which you use everyday.

Concrete is a construction material that consists of, in its most common form, cement, gravel and sand, and water. Concrete is the most highly used manmade product on Earth. It is used to make pavements, building structures, foundations, motorways/roads, overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and
footings for gates, fences and poles. Approximately six billion cubic metres of concrete are produced every year, which is one cubic metre per person on Earth! Concrete commands a $35 billion worldwide industry and employs, in the United States alone, 2 million people.

The origins of concrete can be traced back to the Babylonians, who used a clay-mix similar to concrete. However, the modern-day form of concrete was not invented till 1756, when British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of cement in concrete. His ingredients included pebbles and powdered brick as
aggregate. Nowadays, recycled materials are becoming increasingly more popular as ingredients in concrete due to higher public awareness about ecological sustainability and environmental damage.

The composition of concrete is traditionally relatively simple. However, modern concrete is often a complicated mix, ensuring durability and longevity. Cement is the main ingredient in concrete. Portland cement is the most common cement in circulation, which is just a basic mix of mortar and plaster.

Water is another ingredient in the manufacture of concrete. The w/c ratio (mass ratio of water to cement) is the key factor that determines the strength of Concrete. A lower w/c ratio will yield a concrete which is stronger, while a higher w/c ratio yields a concrete with a lower strength. Water also affects the workability and consistency of a concrete.This water and cement paste hardens over time, and both fine and coarse aggregates are added to provide bulk. Widely used aggregates include sand, gravel and crushed stone. Decorative stones such as, small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative “exposed aggregate” finish, popular among landscape designers.

Ad mixtures are also added to a concrete mix to give it certain characteristics not obtainable by basic production. Admixtures come in powder or paste form and generally consist of no more than 5% of the entire mixture.Concrete has many characteristics including:

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